Q. How do I incorporate missing information into a citation or reference?


If a work you are referencing is missing one or more of the basic elements of a reference (see here for more information on the basic elements of a reference), there are ways to account for this.

If there is no author indicated:

Simply omit the author element from the reference. Only refer to an author as Anonymous if the work is signed as Anonymous.

For in-text citations of works without authors, include the title of the work followed by the year. 

If there is no date indicated:

Replace the date element with the initials n.d.

If there is no title indicated:

Replace the title element with a description of the work in [square brackets.]

For more information, visit the APA Style Blog's guide to missing reference information.


  • Last Updated May 13, 2020
  • Views 25
  • Answered By Ethan Allard

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