Q. How do I cite and reference articles with the same author and the same year?


Sometimes two works have identical authors and dates. Use a, b, c, after the date in each citation and reference to differentiate the entries. 

Reference with date
Lastname, A. (yeara). Title of article. Title of Journal, Volume(Issue), page#-page#. https://doi.org/
Lastname, A. (yearb). Title of article. Title of Journal, Volume(Issue), page#-page#. https://doi.org/

Smith, A. (2005a). Hearing loss in the elderly. Memory & Cognition, 36(4), 416–428. https://doi.org/10.7654/CD.24.1.315

Smith, A. (2005b). Balance and coordination in the elderly. Journal of Ageing, 25(2), 8-15. https://doi.org/110.4567/AB.36.2.416

In-text citation 
(Lastname, yeara)
(Lastname, yearb)

(Smith, 2005a)
(Smith, 2005b)


  • If the work has no date, include a dash before the letter: (Smith, n.d.-a).
  • Only use the letter method if you references are true identical twins. If any of the names or order is different between the works, spell out as many author names as necessary in your citation to tell them apart.



  • Last Updated May 11, 2020
  • Views 25
  • Answered By Fiona Dyer

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