Q. How do I cite and reference an interview or class lecture?


For unpublished interviews or lectures 

Cite in-text as personal communication only. No reference is needed.

(A. Lastname, personal communication, month day, year)


  • An registered nurse explained how "elderly patients with dementia may wander off the premises of nursing homes" (J. McGill, personal communication, October 12, 2015).
  • Plagiarism is a serious violation of academic honesty policies at Bow Valley College (L. Peters, personal communication, September 12, 2016).


  • This citation can be used for any unpublished communication including lectures, interviews, emails, phone calls, and more.



  • Last Updated Apr 23, 2020
  • Views 29
  • Answered By Fiona Dyer

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